Hiroshima University Syllabus

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Academic Year 2024Year School/Graduate School School of Science
Lecture Code HC055000 Subject Classification Specialized Education
Subject Name 熱力学
Subject Name
Subject Name in
Thermodynamics Mechanics
マツムラ タケシ
Campus Higashi-Hiroshima Semester/Term 2nd-Year,  First Semester,  First Semester
Days, Periods, and Classrooms (1st) Weds5-6:SCI E002 AV
Lesson Style Lecture Lesson Style
(More Details)
Lecture for the main part. We use Moodle and PC (Mathematica). 
Credits 2.0 Class Hours/Week   Language of Instruction J : Japanese
Course Level 2 : Undergraduate Low-Intermediate
Course Area(Area) 25 : Science and Technology
Course Area(Discipline) 06 : Physics
Eligible Students 2nd grade undergraduate student
Keywords 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, ideal gas and real gas, equation of state, adiabatic transformation of a gas, Carnot cycle, entropy, free energy, van der Waals gas, phase transition, chemical potential, liquefaction  
Special Subject for Teacher Education   Special Subject  
Class Status
within Educational
(Applicable only to targeted subjects for undergraduate students)
In thermodynamics, we study the laws of a system composed of an enormous number of particles. The motion of each particle is described by the laws of dynamics and electromagnetism, whereas the macroscopic nature of the system as a whole is described by another law using pressure, volume, and temperature, which are the parameters of the system as a whole. The thermodynamics will be completed by studying quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics in the next year and will be linked to condensed matter physics, which deals with the properties of matter.   
Criterion referenced
(Applicable only to targeted subjects for undergraduate students)
(Knowledge and Understanding)
・Knowledge and understanding of physical mathematics, mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. 
Class Objectives
/Class Outline
The concept of volume, pressure, and temperature arises from a system composed of an enormous amount of particles. In addition, the concept of entropy is essential to understand the nature of the many particle system. The most important aim of studying thermodynamics in undergraduate course is to understand the concept of entropy. We study not only an ideal gas but also a van der Waals gas as a model describing a real gas, thereby we study what controls the transformation between gas and liquid.  
Class Schedule Lesson-1: Introduction
Lesson-2:  Kinetic theory of a gas, internal energy, 1st law of thermodynamics
Lesson-3:  Equation of state, partial derivative
Lesson-4:  adiabatic transformation of a gas, Carnot cycle
Lesson-5:  Entropy
Lesson-6:  Thermal equilibrium, Free energy
Lesson-7:  Microscopic understanding of entropy
Lesson-8:  Thermodynamic potential and thermal equilibrium, enthalpy
Lesson-9:  Chemical potential, phase transition, Clausius-Clapeyron relation
Lesson-10:  Thermodynamic functions of ideal gas
Lesson-11:  van der Waals gas
Lesson-12:  Liquid-gas transition of a van der Waals gas
Lesson-13:  Joule-Thomson effect
Lesson-14:  Liquefaction of a gas
Lesson-15:  Examination

The final exam is planned on 7/24.  
text : Thermodynamics (in Japanese) (S. Miyake, Shokabo)
problems: Thermal and Statistical Physics (in Japanese) (R. Kubo, Shokabo) 
PC or AV used in
(More Details) We need a calculator to treat exponentials and logarithms. I recommend you to install Mathematica into your PC to solve equations and draw graphs. Other printed texts will be uploaded to Moodle.  
Learning techniques to be incorporated  
Suggestions on
Preparation and
You need to study by yourself with the textbook and solve problems, in addition to joining the class.
Lesson 1: Introduction. Review by yourself the high school thermodynamics.
Lesson 2: How the microscopic motions of particles are connected to the macroscopic physical parameter such as pressure, volume and temperature.
Lesson 3: How to treat derivatives with two or more variables.
Lesson 4: How a work is produced by expanding a gas. There are some cases.
Lesson 5: How to use the thermal system to produce work.
Lesson 6: Try to imagine microscopic randomness.
Lesson 7: Potential energy is transformed to motion in mechanics. What energy is transformed to mechanical work in thermal system?
Lesson 8: What determines the thermal equilibrium?
Lesson 9: What is the relation between pressure and temperature when water coexists with vapour.
Lesson 10: What is happening in a microscopic scale at the phase equilibrium between water and vapour?
Lesson 11-12: The properties of a van der Waals gas. Phase transition, internal energy, entropy, free energy, chemical potential, specific heat, etc.
Lesson 13: How to cool down a gas.
Lesson 14: How to liquify a gas and the condition of liquefaction.
Lesson 15: Summarize the course and prepare for the exam. 
Requirements The students are requested to have mastered the thermodynamics which should have been finished in the high school course.  
Grading Method The final score will be evaluated by short test (15%), report (15%), and the final examination (70%).  
Practical Experience Experienced  
Summary of Practical Experience and Class Contents based on it Practical course on understanding the thermodynamical properties of matter based on plenty of experience in experimental studies of condensed matter physics by means of crystal growth, measurement of physical properties, neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, data analysis, modeling and numerical simulation.  
Message We aim to understand the phenomena usually observed in our living environment, the principles of available thermal apparatus, and the concept of entropy. After understanding the Joule-Thomson effect and the liquefaction, we plan to visit the Helium Liquefaction Center in the Hiroshima University campus.  
Please fill in the class improvement questionnaire which is carried out on all classes.
Instructors will reflect on your feedback and utilize the information for improving their teaching. 
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